Ahad, 26 Ogos 2012


Mohd Iskandar Daud,Zubir Bin Ismail
Aminudin Abd Rahman,Rosdi Mohd Zin
Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Kota Bharu
Kota Bharu Kelantan

The research aims to explore how far could the technique of TATPR (Toy Assisted Total Physical Response) be able to help preschool children learning, understanding and retaining simple instructions in English. To realise this aim, eight MoE preschool students were chosen through purposive sampling method. In this qualitative research, the data were gathered through observation, the teacher’s reflective journal and also through the assessment on the reactions of preschoolers to simple English instructions. The findings show that preschool children were able to understand the simple instructions given and retain these instructions even after four weeks. The children were observed to be more cooperative by trying to help each other understand the instructions given by the teacher. In addition, the teacher found that he could start the teaching sessions without having to motivate the students because these students were very excited to use and play with the toys he brought into the classroom. Based on all these findings, it can be concluded that TATPR is a suitable technique to be used in the teaching of English to the preschool children.

Keywords: TPR strategy (Total Physical Response), TATPR (Toy Assisted Total Physical Response), preschool learning, teaching method.

Kajian ini bertujuan meneroka sejauhmana teknik pengajaran TATPR (Toy Assisted Total Physical Response) dapat membantu kanak-kanak prasekolah mempelajari, memahami dan mengekalkan ingatan terhadap arahan mudah Bahasa Inggeris. Sampel kajian terdiri daripada lapan orang kanak-kanak prasekolah KPM yang dipilih secara bertujuan. Kajian ini adalah kajian kualitatif dan data diperolehi melalui pemerhatian, jurnal reflektif guru serta penilaian terhadap arahan mudah Bahasa Inggeris. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan kanak-kanak prasekolah dapat memahami arahan yang diberikan dan dapat mengekalkan ingatan tersebut selepas empat minggu. Kanak-kanak didapati cuba membantu rakan-rakan mereka memahami arahan yang diberi oleh guru. Guru pula didapati dapat memulakan sesi pengajaran tanpa perlu memotivasikan kanak-kanak kerana mereka telah teruja dengan penggunaan alat mainan. Jelasnya TATPR didapati sesuai untuk digunakan dalam pengajaran Bahasa Inggeris di prasekolah. 
The Education Act 1996 has institutionalised preschool education into the national education system. Among the objectives of the move are to develop the potentials of the children in all aspects, to ensure the children master all the basic skills and to instil positive attitudes among the preschool children in the hope that all these would better prepare the children when entering primary school education. The institutionalisation of preschool education is a proof that the Ministry of Education of Malaysia is giving its attention on the improvement of the quality of preschool education.

In fulfilling the aim of the National Education Philosophy, comprehensive, integrated and balanced development of preschool children need to be given its due attention in all preschool programmes as the experience during preschool would shape the preschool children’s later development. Rohaty (1986) warns that poor supervision during the developmental process of young children would leave them scarred with negative experience.  On the other hand, studies by Halim (1989) and Ahmad Abd. Ghani (1993) show that children who have undergone preschool education have experienced continuous positive effects. Therefore, preschool programme must ensure that preschool children would develop well intellectually, socially, behaviourally, emotionally as well as physically to guarantee optimal development of the preschool children. A study by Rahimah (1996) concludes that high achievement in preschool programme requires excellent objectives, content, teaching process, learning outcomes, conducive surrounding and brilliant educators. This means the preschool teachers need to prepare lessons that are easy to understand, attractive as well effective.

In total support of the inclusion of English in preschool curriculum, this study aims to  investigate and explore the possibility of using a technique called Toy Assisted Total Physical Response (TATPR) in teaching simple English commands to preschool children effectively and in a more fun way.

In 2003, the nation was alarmed by countless reports that English proficiency among Malaysians has declined. This has been said to be one of the reasons why Malaysian graduates could not land themselves a decent employment (Noor Azina Ismail, 2011). Private sectors would not show much interest if applicants do not possess essential skills like English Language proficiency (Nor Hartini, 2007). The truth is the standard of English among Malaysians has started to decline years before it has been openly publicised and discussed. A research by Rosli Talif and Malachi Edwin (1990) has proven that the decline has started way back even before mid 1980s.

In the effort to curb this declination from continuing, since 2003, the Ministry of Education has made it compulsory for all preschools throughout the nation to teach English to their preschool children. According to Education Act 1996 (Act 550), kindergarten means any place that provides early childhood education for ten or more children. Meanwhile preschool education means educational programme for children from the age of four to six years old. Starting with the young is a very good way to arrest the problem of the declination of English in the country.

A group of researchers from Universiti Sains Malaysia had conducted an assessment on Malaysian preschool children’s basic English proficiency. The group reports that the level of proficiency among preschool children in Malaysia is quite satisfactory. However, the group also warns that there is an alarmingly big gap between those who performed well and those who did very poorly in the tests they conducted. The group, thus, suggests that the preschool teachers should bridge this gap early and try to find effective ways to curb the issue (Norlida Ahmad et. al, 2004). It is in response to this call that this research is carried out to ascertain if the researchers’ method of choice, Total Physical Response, assisted by the use of toys would help bridge the gap of English proficiency among preschool children in Malaysia. This technique is named Toy Assisted Total Physical Response (TATPR).
2.1       The aims and objectives of The National Preschool Curriculum Standard 
The National Preschool Curriculum Standard (NPCS) in 2010 aims to develop the potential in the children aged four to six years in a comprehensive and integrated approach involving physical, emotional, spiritual, intellectual and social development through a safe learning environment, enriched with fun, creative and meaningful activities. This is to enhance the skills, instill confidence and develop a positive self-concept in the children so that they will succeed in the existing environment and be prepared to address the challenges and responsibilities in primary schools later (The National Preschool Curriculum Standard, 2010).
The aims above suggest the activities or lessons in preschools fulfill four keywords; the activities or lessons must be enriching, engaging, safe and fun. Looking at these four keywords, the researchers felt that a method called Total Physical Response (TPR) seemed to fit all the requirements and can be used to design lessons or activities that are enriching, engaging, safe and fun to improve preschool children’s English Language acquisition.
NPCS lists a number of objectives to be achieved by the preschool children. These objectives are  categorised into five domains which are physical, emotional, intellectual, spiritual and social domains (The National Preschool Curriculum Standard, 2010).
TPR can also be utilised to realise a number of objectives in the domains mentioned above. For the physical objectives, TPR may help to build fitness and basic physical skills as well as mastering basic psychomotor skills like the gross and the fine motors. In the emotional domain, TPR may help to raise self confidence and risk taking among preschool children. Meanwhile, in the intellectual domain, preschool children can be trained to communicate in English using TPR. Socially, TPR may also help preschool children to master their communication skills.
The NPCS 2010 has also made a shift in terms of medium of instruction for preschools. The preschools now are required to use 50% Bahasa Malaysia and 50% English in their lessons. This big shift is the evidence of seriousness of the Ministry of Education in improving the standard of English among preschool children.
2.2       Learning while playing. 
Playing is a natural activity and it is a need of every child.  They learn and explore through playing using their high imagination (Morrison, 2000, Spodek, 1985) and they have the tendency to manipulate their own parts of the body since very early childhood. Playing is symbolical and meaningful to children. They are free to explore their surrounding, to have fun and to set up their rules which are appropriate to the games they play (Isenberg and Jolongo, 1997).
The right to play has to be given to children. Parents, teachers, preschool or kindergarten operators as well as the society at large have a very important role in making sure that the children are entitled to their right to play. The importance of learning while playing for preschool children in their teaching and learning sessions has been emphasised by The National Preschool Curriculum Specifications (2003). Playing is an instinct that every child is born with. They will gain experience and earn  new discoveries through natural exploration while playing.
Though the importance of playing for preschool children is widely known, this natural activity is still not being given its due attention. Asmah (2001) discovers that preschool teachers in Brunei have given their focus more on reading, writing and numerical activities compared to playing due to the request by Bruneian parents. The scenario in Malaysia is not that far off either. A study by Hussin (1996) shows that teaching and learning activities in Malaysian preschools seemed to be adopting a more formal approach. Hamzah Dadu (1994) made the same finding in his research. 
2.3       Educating children through the use of toys. 
Children need constant stimulation as it provides them with the opportunity to explore their world in a safe environment. One effectively easy way of stimulating children to explore is to provide them with toys. Use of toys would help make lessons more effective. Aliza Ali, et. al (2011) support this by stating that a good approach to an English lesson is through the use of play and games which make learning experience fun.  
It has been observed that children at school were eager to start their activities if they knew the lessons would involve the use of toys and games. Throughout the activities, the children enjoyed playing, learning together and interacting with their peers (Aliza Ali, et. al, 2011)
Infants whose minds are constantly growing learn a lot through their observation of the surrounding. The most stimulating toys for them at this stage would be black and white toys that can be hung on the ceiling above their bed.  As they grow up, they would feel the need to touch and very often at this stage we see a child puts a toy into her mouth. Just make sure the toy is non-toxic and free of loose small parts.
When a child learns to walk, they need educational toys that can encourage them to keep walking like the toys that have wheels or giving out sounds when pushed. Bright colours are also important at this stage as the child gets attracted to colours. As the children grow older, they would need educational toys that can help them master fine motor and manipulative skills. One good example of this is a toy with shapes on pegs that are put inside a cube with holes in it. The child learns by figuring out what hole each shape fits into. Then even older children would need toys that can teach them reading and math skills like board games and books. By providing our child with educational toys and activities; we are giving them an opportunity to learn basic life skills. Children who have educational toys are less bored and more likely to stay out of trouble.
As for this study, the toys used were a doll house, two figurines and a few furniture - a table, a chair and a bed. The two figurines had movable limbs to make it easier for the teacher when he needed to demonstrate the commands to the children. 
2.4       Total Physical Response (TPR) 
Bandler and Grinder in Verster (2007) state that young learners prefer four modalities of learning which are visual (seeing), auditory (listening), kinesthetic (moving) and tactile (touching). Taking these into consideration, the researchers feel that Total Physical Response (TPR) is the best teaching method that employs all the modalities suggested by Bandler and Grinder. For this reason, TPR has become the method of choice for this research.
TPR was developed by James Asher in 1965 using Japanese language to pioneer his experiment. Due to its huge success, TPR has been used in many language classes all over the world. The method is based on the premise that the human brain has a biological program for acquiring any natural language on earth - including the sign language of the deaf. The process is visible when we observe how infants internalize their first language. This is termed ‘a language-body conversation’ because the parent speaks and the infant answers with a physical response such as looking, smiling, laughing, turning, walking, reaching, grasping, holding, sitting, running, and so forth. Silently, the child is internalizing the patterns and sounds of the target language. When the child has decoded enough of the target language, speaking appears spontaneously (Asher, J., 1968).
2.4.1    The theories behind TPR  
Asher, J., (1968) backs the use of TPR with multiple theories. The first concerns childhood language acquisition theories. The theories assert that children are exposed to a lot of language input even before they could speak. Thus it is logical for language learners to benefit from this natural progression – from comprehension to production, rather than being asked to produce language when they are not ready.
Then TPR also involves the theory of right brain left brain divide. The left brain is used when analyzing, talking, discussing, etc storing the information in a short term memory. Right brain, meanwhile, is used for any physical movements with longer memory retention. TPR activates the right brain through its active physical movements making the information received together with the physical movements remembered for a longer duration.
On the humanistic approach, TPR lowers stress and affective filter. This is because TPR is non-threatening as learners do not need to produce any language at all at the beginning. They only simply follow instructions given to them. Stress-free learning environment also offers longer memory retention.
2.4.2    Principles of TPR. 
In ensuring the success of TPR, Asher, J., (1968, 2009).outlines the principles to be followed. First, it is important to note that preparing a script is essential because language cannot be changed mid-way through the lesson. The language learned in previous lesson must be constantly and extensively recycled and mixed with new language for positive reinforcement in the upcoming lessons. Sticking to script ensures learners would not feel confused by changing of instructions during a lesson.
Introduction of items must be controlled. Limit the number and manipulate them extensively. Too many items would overload the learners and they would not be able to absorb the items well.The teachers must be good natured and positive. Projecting friendly attitude and good mannerism would make learners feel relaxed and comfortable during TPR sessions. Injecting humor into the lesson would be most welcoming too as it can greatly increase interest and enjoyment.
Never force preschool children to speak as it flouts TPR’s greatest maxim. Let them listen and act out the commands. They will speak when they feel they are comfortable enough to do so. On another note, preschool children do not need to help each other as, in TPR, the meaning of commands are obvious from the contexts and the actions shown. Hence, translating is not needed in TPR. If it is done, then the input is reverted back to the left brain and the benefits of TPR are lost. On top of that, learners’ listening ability also will not improve.
The effectiveness of TPR - Asher J., (1968) argues that TPR has many advantages. The method is easy to implement as it requires no translation. Meaning comes through from actions. For academically weaker preschool children, TPR does not give them any disadvantage as they are not required to produce any speech. It is the same new playing field for all preschool children. It also trains learners to react to commands and not think too much about language. This reduces the stress and pressure for the learners.
The style of teaching is unique and this uniqueness attracts interest as the learners feel that teaching and learning session is different than the usual traditional way of teaching. The use of physical movements and disguised repetitions in TPR creates a long-term retention for the learners. TPR is also perfect for team teaching. One teacher can give out commands and the other may act out the orders. Later researchers have also given their testimony on the widely acclaimed success of TPR. Raven (in Siti Aisyah, 2007) testifies that TPR is a highly effective technique at beginning levels and it is a standard requirement in the instruction of young learners.
Weaknesses of TPR - Nonetheless, TPR also has some weaknesses. Brown (2007) lists a few. Firstly, TPR is not as effective in higher levels of language learning. Once the learners have attained a certain level of proficiency, the magic of the method would wane. Then, the method does not promote independent language use outside of oral work modeled by teacher in classroom as the learners’ need for unrehearsed language is not always met. Next from a purely practical point of view, it is highly unlikely that even the most skilled and inventive teacher could sustain a lesson stage involving commands and physical responses for more than a few minutes before the activity becomes repetitious for the learners, although the use of situational role-play could provide a range of contexts for practising a wider range of lexis. These repetitious commands would later make the learners, especially the young ones, to be disinterested, bored and may disengage themselves from the lessons.
2.4.3    Toy Assisted Total Physical Response (TATPR) 
The weaknesses discussed above require solution. As a method, TPR is very flexible and can be modified to improve without altering its main principles. Anticipating the boredom that the regimented TPR drills might bring into the lessons, the researchers felt that the introduction of the use of toys would help alleviate this problem and increase as well as sustain the interest of preschool children. Therefore Toy Assisted Total Physical Response (TATPR) was proposed for the study.
The aim of the study is to explore the use of Toy Assisted Total Physical Response (TATPR) teaching technique in enhancing preschool children to learn simple English commands. The study investigated whether the preschool children could understand and retain simple English commands in the classroom through the instructions given by the teacher using TATPR teaching technique. This explorative study could be beneficial for two parties directly involved in the field - the preschool children and the preschool English teachers.
The objectives of this study can be stated as follow: 
a)     To investigate whether preschool children understand simple English commands through TATPR teaching technique. 
b)     To explore how can an English teacher employ TATPR teaching technique for preschool children.
The following research questions would guide the collection and analysis of the data: 
a)     How far do the preschool children understand simple English commands through TATPR teaching technique? 
b)     How can the teacher employ the TATPR teaching technique in teaching simple English commands to preschool children?
The case study was qualitative in nature exploring the use of TATPR teaching technique on eight preschool children understanding simple English commands. The data were gathered through an observation of teacher instruction and preschool children learning, and the teacher’s reflective journal as well as the assessment on the preschool children’s response to English commands. The study deployed interpretational data analysis, using purposive sampling in selecting its participants, as well as triangulation, or the use of multiple methods, to derive relevant data for analysis. In order to assess their retention of the items taught, the researchers gave a grace period of four weeks. This is in line with Kline’s (1983) suggestion that the interval between test retest sessions should not be less than a month.
4.1       TATPR Procedures
Here are the procedures that have been used during the study:
In the first stage, the teacher demonstrated and the preschool children observed the process The preschool children listened and watched as the teacher uttered one simple English command after another (eg:  Point to, walk to and Sit on) using toys.The teacher spoke slowly and distinctively. In the second stage the teacher instructed the volunteers to move the toys according to the commands given.
The third stage saw some preschool children were called to the front of the class. This time the teacher gave the commands and the volunteers acted them out. The rest of the class just listened and watched the performance. In the fourth stage the volunteers were sent back to their seats. Then more commands were given and the preschool children acted them out (This is possible once you expand one word utterance into more complex patterns such as; point to the ceiling, point to the floor, point to the chalkboard, point to your desk, point to the...) After some practice, volunteers asked their friends to follow some commands.
All the procedures were observed and recorded.
The lessons were conducted totally in English. After the whole session, each preschool child was evaluated to find their understanding of the commands given. They were chosen randomly to carry out the instructions set by the teacher. It was found that all the respondents (100%) were able to perform the instructions given satisfactorily. The samples of the instructions are like ‘point to the chair, walk to the chair, sit on the chair.
Example of individual commands for each respondent:
Respondent 1: ‘Point to the chair, walk to the chair, sit on the chair’.
Respondent 2: ‘Sit on the chair, point to the table, walk to the table’.
Respondent 3: ‘Walk to the chair, point to the door, walk to the door’, etc.
However, only five out of eight (62.5%) were able to replicate the instructions to their peers even though all the respondents managed to correctly follow the orders given.
The preschool children’s memory retention was tested about four weeks after the session. The researchers had chosen the same preschool children randomly and using the same commands in a random manner, retested the children. In the retest, it was found that six out of eight (75%) managed to recall correctly the commands given during the TATPR session and carried out the instructions correctly.  This proves that TATPR is quite effective in making the children retain the information for a longer period.
Another point to highlight is that the preschool children involved in the study had, without hesitation, helped in translating the instructions to their friends when a few of them could not understand the instructions. This unanticipated event is a proof that TATPR is a stress free technique as the children were not afraid to translate the instructions into their mother tongue and help their friends because TATPR does not force them to speak in English.  Hence the spirit of cooperation was instilled during the session.
TATPR can be used to teach simple English commands providing that the number of preschool children involved is small, probably between 8 to 10 preschool children. This is alligned with the findings by Silver et. al (2003). A big number would make it difficult when the teacher wants to ask the children to act out the commands. The unfocused time would be too much when the preschool children wait for their turn for individual demonstrations. This may result in mayhem. If the number of children is too small, say around 5, then it would be difficult to limit the new vocabulary items to a learnable number making the lesson too heavy with vocabulary.
The use of TATPR does not require the children to speak, so, they were not afraid to try out the instructions given. This is what happened during the study. It was found that the preschool children did not have any reservation to act out all the commands given. This accommodating principle (borrowed from TPR) is one good feature that makes the learning environment stress free and friendly to the preschool children.
On a negative note, since most of the respondents do not possess good command of English, they tended to parrot along with the teacher. This troubled the teacher as the focus on the commands was disturbed. The learners needed a lot of persuasion not to do so. The lesson could only continue when the teacher managed to settle the preschool children down.
The teacher also found it quite difficult to use words other than imperatives. When the lesson involved commands and actions, then to introduce other structures was quite difficult. However, this does not mean that TATPR does not have good potentials. It is just that the teacher needs to be more creative in changing the techniques used with TPR and may move on to find other relevant tools to be used with TPR.
One very interesting finding is that the use of toys had eliminated the need for initial prompts. The children were very eager to lay their hands on the toys and play with them. They were very enthusiastic to start the lesson upon seeing the toys in the hands of the teacher. Thus, the use of toys has an instant motivation for the children to play and explore the use of language. The teacher did not even need to coax them to be active in the lesson. 
However, the use of toys also has its disadvantage. The researchers found that the eagerness of the children to play with the toys has made a few to pay less attention to the instructions given as they could not wait to play with them. The researchers had to hold back the toys and only let them play if they listen to the instructions.
The results of this exploratory study shows that the preschool children were able to understand simple English commands and able to retain them even after the period of four weeks. There is also evidence that they were very motivated and eager to learn the lessons. They showed no inhibition at all throughout the sessions. The use of toys in TATPR really helped sustain their learning focus. These findings testify that the TATPR teaching technique has a very high potential to be employed by preschool English teachers.
In addition, the children seemed to understand the commands well without any translation from the teacher. Therefore, it can be suggested that preschool English teachers may not need to revert to the use of mother tongue.
The researchers believe further study in this area can be carried out using experimental method to see the significant difference in terms of new item retention or in comparison to other methods. On top of that, the study can further be improved by using multimedia supported TPR.

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